After finishing his medical training in Egypt he has been studying several aspects of autoimmunity for the last 20 years with a primary focus on genetics. At Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, Helsinki University, where he obtained his doctoral degree in Immunology, he studied the potential influence of a bacterial surface proteins on the B-cell repertoire. During that period, he received his basic training in molecular immunology.

He then moved to the Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, USA, in 1993 where he studied mechanisms of B cell tolerance. During that time he received his training in molecular genetics. In 1996 he moved to the University of Rostock, Germany, where he spent more than 10 years establishing an independent research group. There he developed novel mouse models to study the genetics of autoimmune diseases.  

 

In 2008 he moved to the University of Lübeck as a professor with a research focus on the genetics of skin inflammatory diseases.